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Geronimo se rinde

Geronimo se rinde


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El 4 de septiembre de 1886, el líder apache Geronimo se rinde a los Estados Unidos. Durante 30 años, el guerrero nativo americano había luchado para proteger la patria de su tribu; sin embargo, en 1886 los apaches estaban agotados y superados en número sin remedio. El general Nelson Miles aceptó la rendición de Geronimo, convirtiéndolo en el último guerrero nativo americano en ceder formalmente a las fuerzas estadounidenses y señalando el final de las guerras indias en el suroeste.

Gerónimo nació en 1829 y creció en lo que es lo que hoy es Arizona y México. Su tribu, los Chiricahua Apaches, se enfrentó a colonos no nativos que intentaban apoderarse de sus tierras. En 1858, la familia de Gerónimo fue asesinada por mexicanos. Buscando venganza, luego dirigió redadas contra colonos mexicanos y estadounidenses. En 1874, el gobierno de los Estados Unidos trasladó a Geronimo y su gente de su tierra a una reserva en el centro-este de Arizona. Las condiciones en la reserva eran restrictivas y duras y Gerónimo y algunos de sus seguidores escaparon.

LEER MÁS: Cómo Geronimo eludió la muerte y la captura durante 25 años

Durante la siguiente década, lucharon contra las tropas federales y lanzaron redadas en los asentamientos blancos. Durante este tiempo, Geronimo y sus seguidores se vieron obligados a regresar a la reserva varias veces. En mayo de 1885, Gerónimo y aproximadamente 150 seguidores huyeron por última vez. Fueron perseguidos a México por 5,000 soldados estadounidenses. En marzo de 1886, el general George Crook (1829-1890) obligó a Geronimo a rendirse; sin embargo, Gerónimo escapó rápidamente y continuó sus incursiones. El general Nelson Miles (1839-1925) se hizo cargo de la persecución de Geronimo, lo que finalmente lo obligó a rendirse en septiembre cerca de Fort Bowie a lo largo de la frontera entre Arizona y Nuevo México.

Geronimo y una banda de apaches fueron enviados a Florida y luego a Alabama, y ​​finalmente terminaron en la reserva de Comanche y Kiowa cerca de Fort Sill, Territorio de Oklahoma. Allí, Gerónimo se convirtió en un granjero exitoso y se convirtió al cristianismo. Participó en el desfile inaugural del presidente Theodore Roosevelt en 1905. El líder apache dictó su autobiografía, publicada en 1906 como La historia de su vida de Geronimo.

Murió en Fort Sill el 17 de febrero de 1909.


Geronimo se rinde, poniendo fin a las principales guerras indias

Después de casi 30 años luchando contra los estadounidenses y mexicanos que invadieron su casa, Gerónimo se rindió el 4 de septiembre de 1886.

Gerónimo, nacido en 1829, era conocido por su pueblo apache como Goyaalé, o "el que bosteza". En la década de 1850, un grupo de soldados mexicanos atacó su aldea mientras él se encontraba comerciando en una ciudad cercana. Gerónimo regresó a casa para encontrar a su madre, esposa e hijos entre los muertos ese día. A partir de entonces, Gerónimo y sus seguidores mataron a los mexicanos con los que se cruzaron en su camino por venganza.

N.o de artículo 4902068 - Tarjeta de prueba del primer día de Geronimo

Gerónimo pasó los siguientes 30 años librando una guerra con mexicanos y estadounidenses. En 1874, él y su tribu fueron trasladados a una reserva en Arizona. Geronimo no estaba de acuerdo con los estrictos gobernantes allí y llevó a sus seguidores a una serie de atrevidas escapadas a lo largo de los años. Después de estas fugas, Gerónimo y su banda de apaches lanzaron incursiones en los asentamientos blancos, pero siempre fueron obligados a regresar a la reserva.

Gerónimo hizo su última fuga en mayo de 1885, liderando a unos 150 seguidores. Fueron seguidos a México por 5,000 soldados estadounidenses y finalmente capturados por el general George Crook. Obligó a Gerónimo a rendirse. Pero como había hecho muchas veces en el pasado, Geronimo escapó y lanzó más redadas.

U.S. # UX190 - Postal del primer día de emisión de Geronimo

Tras el fracaso de Crook, el general Nelson Miles fue contratado para perseguir a Geronimo. Miles atrapó a Geronimo cerca de Fort Bowie a lo largo de la frontera entre Arizona y Nuevo México. Después de décadas de lucha y años de correr decenas de millas al día, Gerónimo y sus hombres estaban cansados. Esta vez, Gerónimo se rindió, lo que lo convirtió en el último guerrero indio en hacerlo, poniendo fin a los principales combates de las guerras indias en el suroeste.


Historia nativa: Geronimo es el último guerrero nativo en rendirse

Esta fecha en la historia nativa: el 4 de septiembre de 1886, el gran guerrero Apache Geronimo se rindió en Skeleton Canyon, Arizona, después de luchar por su tierra natal durante casi 30 años. Fue el último guerrero indio americano que se rindió formalmente a los Estados Unidos.

Nacido en junio de 1829 cerca del río Gila en Arizona, Geronimo era un joven de modales apacibles, dijo Mark Megehee, especialista en museos en el Museo Fort Sill en Oklahoma. Su nombre de nacimiento era Goyalkla o & # x201COne Who Bosteza. & # X201D

A los 17 años, Gerónimo se casó con Alope, con quien tuvo tres hijos. Su vida cambió en 1858 cuando una compañía de soldados mexicanos encabezada por el coronel José María Carrasco atacó a los apaches y asesinó a la esposa, la madre y los hijos de Gerónimo.

& # x201CCarrasco dijo que golpeó y tenía la intención de eliminar a todos los hombres, mujeres y niños de los apaches, pero los guerreros en general escaparon mientras que sus familias fueron las que fueron masacradas, & # x201D dijo Megehee, miembro del Sac y Nación Fox de Oklahoma. & # x201C Eso cambió la personalidad de Geronimo. Sus amigos notaron que ya no era amable y agradable de tratar. Era inesperadamente violento y tenía mal genio. Se puso muy afligido, pero iba a ajustar cuentas. & # X201D

En sus propias palabras, traducido en 1909 y publicado en el libro de 1996 Geronimo: su propia historia, Gerónimo describió el incidente.

& # x201CI descubrió que mi anciana madre, mi joven esposa y mis tres hijos pequeños estaban entre los asesinados & # x201D, dijo. & # x201C No había luces en el campamento, así que sin que me vieran, me di la vuelta en silencio y me quedé junto al río. No sé cuánto tiempo estuve allí, pero cuando vi a los guerreros organizando un consejo, tomé mi lugar. & # X201D

Solo quedaban 80 guerreros, por lo que el jefe ordenó a los sobrevivientes que regresaran a Arizona, dijo Geronimo. No le quedaba & # x201C ningún propósito & # x201D porque & # x201C había perdido todo. & # X201D

& # x201CI nunca más volvió a estar contento en nuestro tranquilo hogar & # x201D, escribió. & # x201CI había jurado vengarse de los soldados mexicanos que me habían hecho daño, y cada vez que me acercaba a la tumba (de mi padre y # x2019s) o veía algo que me recordara los días felices anteriores, mi corazón ansiaba vengarse de México. & # x201D

Geronimo pasó a liderar una banda de guerreros Apache en todo el sur de Arizona y Nuevo México, manteniendo exitosamente a los colonos blancos fuera de las tierras Apache durante décadas y convirtiéndose en un & # x201Csímbolo de la libertad indomable del Oeste americano & # x201D.

& # x201CHe no solo era un tipo duro, sino que tenía habilidades de liderazgo, & # x201D Megehee. & # x201CHe cuidamos de los hombres, las mujeres y los niños de manera que se satisfagan todas sus necesidades. Gerónimo hizo más con menos. En el vocabulario actual & # x2019s, multiplicó su fuerza por sigilo, por potencia de fuego y por movilidad. & # X201D

En 1886, sin embargo, Gerónimo estaba cansado. Después de liderar a 39 apaches a través del suroeste, corriendo hasta 80 millas por día para mantenerse por delante de 5,000 soldados blancos, Gerónimo se rindió al general Nelson A. Miles el 4 de septiembre.

Miles, en sus memorias, describió a Geronimo como & # x201Cono de los hombres más brillantes, resueltos y de apariencia decidida que jamás haya conocido. & # X201D

Después de su juicio, Geronimo fue puesto a trabajar como prisionero de guerra, realizando trabajos pesados ​​para el Ferrocarril del Pacífico Sur. Esto fue una violación del acuerdo que hizo con los Estados Unidos cuando se rindió.

Pasó el resto de su vida como prisionero de guerra y explorador del ejército de los EE. UU., Aunque ganó popularidad como atracción en los espectáculos de St. Louis World & aposs Fair y Wild West. También fue uno de los seis indios que marcharon en el desfile inaugural de 1905 por el presidente Theodore Roosevelt.

Murió en Fort Sill, Oklahoma, en 1909, todavía en la nómina federal como explorador.


Apelación de Geronimo a Theodore Roosevelt

Cuando nació tenía una disposición tan somnolienta que sus padres lo llamaron Goyahkla& # 8212 El que bosteza. Vivió la vida de un miembro de la tribu Apache en relativa tranquilidad durante tres décadas, hasta que dirigió una expedición comercial desde las montañas Mogollon hacia el sur de México en 1858. Dejó el campamento Apache para hacer negocios en Casa Grandes y regresó para encontrar que los soldados mexicanos había masacrado a las mujeres y los niños que habían quedado atrás, incluida su esposa, su madre y sus tres hijos pequeños. & # 8220 Me quedé de pie hasta que todo hubo pasado, sin saber apenas qué haría, & # 8221 recordaría. & # 8220 No tenía arma, ni apenas deseaba pelear, tampoco contemplaba recuperar los cuerpos de mis seres queridos, pues eso estaba prohibido. No oré, ni resolví hacer nada en particular, porque no me quedaba ningún propósito. & # 8221

Regresó a casa y quemó su tipi y las posesiones de su familia. Luego lideró un asalto a un grupo de mexicanos en Sonora. Se diría que después de que una de sus víctimas gritó pidiendo misericordia en nombre de San Jerónimo & # 8212Jerónimo en español & # 8212 los Apaches tenían un nuevo nombre para Goyahkla. Pronto el nombre provocó miedo en todo Occidente. Cuando los inmigrantes invadieron las tierras de los nativos americanos, obligando a los indígenas a ingresar a las reservas, el guerrero Gerónimo se negó a ceder.

Nacido y criado en un área a lo largo del río Gila que ahora se encuentra en la frontera entre Arizona y Nuevo México, Gerónimo pasaría el próximo cuarto de siglo atacando y evadiendo a las tropas mexicanas y estadounidenses, prometiendo matar a tantos hombres blancos como pudiera. Apuntó a los inmigrantes y sus trenes, y se sabía que los colonos blancos atormentados en el oeste de Estados Unidos asustaban a sus hijos que se portaban mal con la amenaza de que Gerónimo vendría por ellos.

Geronimo (tercero desde la derecha, al frente) y sus compañeros prisioneros Apache en ruta al campo de prisioneros de guerra en Fort Pickens en Pensacola, Florida, en 1886. (Wikipedia)

En 1874, después de que los inmigrantes blancos exigieran la intervención militar federal, los apaches se vieron obligados a trasladarse a una reserva en Arizona. Gerónimo y un grupo de seguidores escaparon, y las tropas estadounidenses lo siguieron sin descanso a través de los desiertos y montañas del oeste. Muy superado en número y agotado por una persecución que se había prolongado por 3,000 millas & # 8212 y que incluía la ayuda de exploradores Apache & # 8212, finalmente se rindió al general Nelson A. Miles en Skeleton Canyon, Arizona en 1886 y entregó su rifle Winchester y su cuchillo Sheffield Bowie. Estaba & # 8220 ansioso por lograr los mejores términos posibles & # 8221, señaló Miles. Geronimo y sus & # 8220renegades & # 8221 acordaron un exilio de dos años y posterior regreso a la reserva.

En Nueva York, el presidente Grover Cleveland estaba preocupado por los términos. En un telegrama a su secretario de guerra, Cleveland escribió: & # 8220 Espero que no se haga nada con Geronimo que impida que lo tratemos como un prisionero de guerra, si no podemos colgarlo, lo que preferiría. & # 8221

Gerónimo evitó la ejecución, pero la disputa sobre los términos de la rendición aseguró que pasaría el resto de su vida como prisionero del Ejército, sujeto a traición e indignidad. El líder Apache y sus hombres fueron enviados en furgón, bajo una fuerte guardia, a Fort Pickens en Pensacola, Florida, donde realizaron trabajos forzados. En ese clima extraño, el El Correo de Washington Informó que el Apache murió & # 8220 como moscas en la época de las heladas & # 8221. Los hombres de negocios pronto tuvieron la idea de que Geronimo sirviera como atracción turística, y cientos de visitantes entraban a diario en el fuerte para ver a los & # 8220 sanguinarios & # 8221 indio en su celda.

Mientras los prisioneros de guerra estaban en Florida, el gobierno trasladó a cientos de sus hijos de su reserva de Arizona a la Carlisle Indian Industrial School en Pensilvania. Más de un tercio de los estudiantes murieron rápidamente de tuberculosis, & # 8220 murieron como golpeados por la peste, & # 8221 el Correo informó. Los apaches vivían en constante terror de que les quitaran más hijos y los enviaran al este.

Los estudiantes indios enviados a la Escuela Industrial Indígena Carlisle en Pensilvania murieron por cientos de enfermedades infecciosas. (Wikipedia)

Geronimo y sus compañeros prisioneros de guerra se reunieron con sus familias en 1888, cuando los Chiricahua Apaches fueron trasladados al cuartel de Mount Vernon en Alabama. Pero allí, también, los apaches comenzaron a morir & # 8212 una cuarta parte de ellos de tuberculosis & # 8212 hasta que Geronimo y más de 300 personas fueron llevados a Fort Sill, Oklahoma, en 1894. Aunque todavía estaban cautivos, se les permitió vivir en aldeas alrededor del correo. En 1904, Geronimo recibió permiso para presentarse en la Feria Mundial & # 8217s de St. Louis de 1904, que incluía una exposición & # 8220Apache Village & # 8221 a mitad de camino.

Fue presentado como una pieza viviente de museo en una exhibición que pretendía ser un & # 8220monumento del progreso de la civilización & # 8221. Bajo guardia, hizo arcos y flechas mientras las mujeres Pueblo sentadas a su lado machacaban maíz y elaboraban cerámica, y él era un sorteo popular. Vendió autógrafos y posó para fotografías con aquellos que estuvieran dispuestos a desprenderse de unos dólares por el privilegio.

Gerónimo parecía disfrutar de la feria. Muchas de las exhibiciones lo fascinaron, como un espectáculo de magia durante el cual una mujer sentada en una canasta cubierta con tela y un hombre procedió a hundir las espadas a través de la canasta. & # 8220 Me gustaría saber cómo se curó tan rápido y por qué las heridas no la mataron & # 8221, le dijo Gerónimo a un escritor. También vio un & # 8220 oso blanco & # 8221 que parecía ser & # 8220 tan inteligente como un hombre & # 8221 y podía hacer cualquier cosa que le ordenara su cuidador. & # 8220Estoy seguro de que ningún oso pardo podría ser entrenado para hacer estas cosas & # 8221, observó. Hizo su primer viaje en una noria, donde las personas de abajo & # 8220 no parecían más grandes que las hormigas & # 8221.

En sus memorias dictadas, Geronimo dijo que estaba contento de haber ido a la feria, y que los blancos eran & # 8220un pueblo amable y pacífico & # 8221. Añadió: & # 8220 Durante todo el tiempo que estuve en la feria nadie trató de hacerme daño de alguna manera. Si esto hubiera sido entre los mexicanos, estoy seguro de que me habría visto obligado a defenderme a menudo. & # 8221

Después de la feria, Pawnee Bill & # 8217s Wild West show negoció un acuerdo con el gobierno para que Geronimo se uniera al show, nuevamente bajo la guardia del Ejército. Los indios en el show de Pawnee Bill fueron representados como monstruos & # 8220, ladrones, traicioneros, asesinos & # 8221 que habían matado a cientos de hombres, mujeres y niños y que no pensarían en quitarle el cuero cabelludo a ningún miembro de la audiencia, dado el oportunidad. Los visitantes vinieron a ver cómo el & # 8220savage & # 8221 había sido & # 8220 domesticado & # 8221 y le pagaron a Geronimo para que tomara un botón del abrigo del vicioso Apache & # 8220chief & # 8221. No importa que nunca había sido un jefe y, de hecho, se erizó cuando se refirió a él como uno.

Los espectáculos le pusieron mucho dinero en el bolsillo y le permitieron viajar, aunque nunca sin guardias gubernamentales. Si Pawnee Bill quería que disparara a un búfalo desde un automóvil en movimiento, o lo considerara & # 8220 el peor indio que jamás haya existido & # 8221, Geronimo estaba dispuesto a seguirle el juego. & # 8220The Indian, & # 8221 una revista mencionada en ese momento, & # 8220 siempre será un objeto fascinante. & # 8221

En marzo de 1905, Geronimo fue invitado al desfile inaugural del presidente Theodore Roosevelt, él y cinco verdaderos jefes indios, que vestían tocados completos y rostros pintados, cabalgaban por la avenida Pennsylvania. La intención, dijo un periódico, era mostrar a los estadounidenses & # 8220 que han enterrado el hacha para siempre & # 8221.

Geronimo (segundo desde la derecha, al frente) y cinco jefes nativos americanos participaron en el desfile del día de inauguración del presidente Theodore Roosevelt en 1905. (Biblioteca del Congreso)

Después del desfile, Geronimo se reunió con Roosevelt en lo que el Tribuna de Nueva York informó fue una & # 8220 apelación patética & # 8221 para permitirle regresar a Arizona. & # 8220 Quita las cuerdas de nuestras manos & # 8221 Geronimo suplicó, con lágrimas & # 8220 corriendo por sus mejillas llenas de cicatrices de bala. & # 8221 A través de un intérprete, Roosevelt le dijo a Geronimo que el indio tenía un & # 8220 mal corazón & # 8221. & # 8220Mataste a muchos de los míos, quemaste aldeas & # 8230 y no eras buenos indios. & # 8221 El presidente tendría que esperar un rato & # 8220 y ver cómo actúas tú y tu gente & # 8221 en su reserva.

Geronimo gesticuló & # 8220wildly & # 8221 y la reunión se interrumpió. & # 8220El Gran Padre está muy ocupado & # 8221, le dijo un miembro del personal, alejando a Roosevelt e instando a Geronimo a que dejara sus preocupaciones por escrito. A Roosevelt se le dijo que el guerrero Apache estaría más seguro en la reserva en Oklahoma que en Arizona: & # 8220Si regresaba allí, sería muy probable que encontrara una cuerda esperándolo, porque una gran cantidad de personas en el Territorio lo están buscando. una oportunidad para matarlo. & # 8221

Geronimo regresó a Fort Sill, donde los periódicos continuaron describiéndolo como un & # 8220 jefe apache sediento de sangre & # 8221 viviendo con la & # 8220 feroz inquietud de una bestia enjaulada & # 8221. Le había costado al tío Sam más de un millón de dólares y cientos. de vidas para mantenerlo detrás de la cerradura y la llave, el Boston Globe informó. Pero el Hartford Courant Geronimo & # 8220 se cuadró con los rostros pálidos, & # 8221 ya que era tan hábil en el póquer que mantuvo a los soldados & # 8220 rotos casi todo el tiempo & # 8221. Sus ganancias, señaló el periódico, se usaron para ayudar a pagar el costo. de educar a los niños Apache.

Los periodistas que lo visitaron describieron a Geronimo como & # 8220crazy, & # 8221, a veces persiguiendo turistas a caballo mientras bebían en exceso. Se informó que su octava esposa lo había abandonado, y solo una pequeña hija lo estaba cuidando.

En 1903, sin embargo, Gerónimo se convirtió al cristianismo y se unió a la Iglesia Reformada Holandesa & # 8212Roosevelt & # 8217s & # 8212s Church & # 8212 con la esperanza de complacer al presidente y obtener un perdón. & # 8220Mi cuerpo está enfermo y mis amigos me han tirado, & # 8221 Gerónimo les dijo a los miembros de la iglesia. & # 8220He sido un hombre muy malvado, y mi corazón no está feliz. Veo que los blancos han encontrado una manera que los hace buenos y felices a sus corazones. Quiero que me lo muestres. & # 8221 Cuando se le pidió que abandonara todas las & # 8220 supersticiones, & # 8221, así como los juegos de azar y el whisky, Gerónimo estuvo de acuerdo y fue bautizado, pero la iglesia más tarde lo expulsaría por su incapacidad para mantenerse alejado. de las mesas de juego.

Agradeció profusamente a Roosevelt (& # 8220 jefe de un gran pueblo & # 8221) en sus memorias por darle permiso para contar su historia, pero a Gerónimo nunca se le permitió regresar a su tierra natal. En febrero de 1909, una noche lo arrojaron de su caballo y lo tumbaron en el suelo frío antes de que lo descubrieran después del amanecer. Murió de neumonía el 17 de febrero.

Geronimo (centro, de pie) en la feria St. Louis World & # 8217s en 1904. (Biblioteca del Congreso)

los Chicago Daily Tribune publicó el titular, & # 8220Geronimo ahora un buen indio, & # 8221 aludiendo a una cita atribuida ampliamente y erróneamente al general Philip Sheridan. El mismo Roosevelt resumiría sus sentimientos de esta manera: & # 8220 & # 8217t ir tan lejos como para pensar que los únicos indios buenos son los indios muertos, pero creo que nueve de cada diez lo son, y no debería & # 8217 querer preguntar demasiado de cerca. en el caso de la décima. & # 8221

Después de un servicio cristiano y una gran procesión fúnebre compuesta por blancos y nativos americanos, Geronimo fue enterrado en Fort Sill. Solo entonces dejó de ser un prisionero de los Estados Unidos.

Artículos: & # 8220Geronimo poniéndose cuadrado con los rostros pálidos, & # 8221 El Hartford Courant, 6 de junio de 1900. & # 8221 & # 8220 Geronimo le ha costado al tío Sam $ 1,000,000, & # 8221 Boston Daily Globe, 25 de abril de 1900. & # 8220 Geronimo se ha vuelto loco, & # 8221 New York Times, 25 de julio de 1900. & # 8220 Gerónimo en oración, & # 8221 El Washington Post, 29 de noviembre de 1903. & # 8220Geronimo parece loco, & # 8221 Tribuna de Nueva York, 19 de mayo de 1907. & # 8220Geronimo en la Feria Mundial & # 8217s, & # 8221 Suplemento Scientific American, 27 de agosto de 1904. & # 8220 Prisionero de 18 años, & # 8221 Boston Daily Globe, 18 de septiembre de 1904. & # 8220 Jefes en el desfile, & # 8221 El Correo de Washington, 3 de febrero de 1905. & # 8220 Indios en la Casa Blanca, & # 8221 Tribuna de Nueva York, 10 de marzo de 1905. & # 8220 Savage Indian Chiefs, & # 8221 El Washington Post, 5 de marzo de 1905. & # 8220 Indios en la marcha inaugural, & # 8221 por Jesse Rhodes, Smithsonian, 14 de enero de 2009. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/specialsections/heritage/Indians-on-the-Inaugural-March.html & # 8220Geronimo Wants His Freedom, & # 8221 Boston Daily Globe, 28 de enero de 1906. & # 8220 Geronimo se une a la Iglesia, con la esperanza de complacer a Roosevelt, & # 8221 La Constitución de Atlanta, 10 de julio de 1907. & # 8220A Bad Indian, & # 8221 El Washington Post, 24 de agosto de 1907. & # 8220Geronimo Now Good Indian, & # 8221 Chicago Daily Tribune, 18 de febrero de 1909. & # 8220 Chief Geronimo Buried, & # 8221 New York Times, 19 de febrero de 1909. & # 8220 Chief Geronimo Dead, & # 8221 Tribuna de Nueva York, 19 de febrero de 1909. & # 8220Native America Prisoners of War: Chircahua Apaches 1886-1914, The Museum of the American Indian, http://www.chiricahua-apache.com/ & # 8220 & # 8217A Very Good and Peaceful People & # 8217: Geronimo and the World & # 8217s Fair, & # 8221 por Mark Sample, 3 de mayo de 2011, http://www.samplereality.com/2011/05/03/a-very-kind-and-peaceful-people- geronimo-and-the-worlds-fair / & # 8220Geronimo: Finding Peace, & # 8221 por Alan MacIver, Vision.org, http://www.vision.org/visionmedia/article.aspx?id=12778

Libros: Gerónimo, Geronimo & # 8217s Historia de su vida, Tomado y editado por S. M. Barrett, Superintendente de Educación, Lawton, Oklahoma, Duffield & amp Company, 1915.


Geronimo & # 8217s Last Surrender

El 5 de septiembre de 1886, el general de brigada Nelson A. Miles envió un telegrama a sus superiores en Washington, D.C., anunciando que la guerra de 16 meses con Geronimo y Naiche finalmente había terminado. También había terminado una era. Veinticinco años de guerra intermitente entre los apaches chiricahua y los estadounidenses habían llegado a su destino final e inevitable. Al frente de la resistencia estaba Gerónimo, un chamán chiricahua que participó en prácticamente todos los incidentes importantes entre su pueblo y los estadounidenses durante el cuarto de siglo anterior. No era un jefe en el sentido tradicional. Su autoridad tribal prevaleció sobre familiares y amigos cercanos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los chiricahuas reconocieron que tenía poderes casi sobrenaturales: una habilidad incuestionable para predecir los movimientos del enemigo y el resultado de las batallas.

Durante su último vuelo desde la reserva el 17 de mayo de 1885, solo pudo convencer a 143 seguidores (41 combatientes) para que se unieran a él. Más de la mitad se fue solo porque habían entrado en pánico cuando Gerónimo les dijo una mentira, que sus hombres habían matado al agente. El resto de la tribu, unas 385 personas, se había quedado en la reserva. Con la esperanza de poner un fin rápido a la guerra, 60 de los 80 hombres chiricahua en realidad se alistaron como exploradores para el ejército. Fueron dirigidos por Chatto, un jefe de 40 años, que realizaría el servicio de labradores durante la campaña de 1885. Sin los exploradores apaches (que incluían a los apaches occidentales), los militares habrían logrado poco.

Hoy, en el 120 aniversario de la rendición de Geronimo y el 3 de septiembre, Chatto y Geronimo se han convertido en los rostros de las facciones de la paz y la guerra, los personajes simbólicos de la nación y la última guerra importante de Apache. Una vez que Geronimo capituló formalmente en Skeleton Canyon en el territorio de Arizona, el general Miles envió a los enemigos a Florida, donde fueron mantenidos bajo control militar y clasificados como prisioneros de guerra. La decisión de Miles fue justa, ya que durante la década anterior Gerónimo había dejado reservas en cuatro ocasiones (en 1876, 1878, 1881 y 1885), escapando a la Sierra Madre en México.

Miles luego hizo una recomendación, esta injusta. Pidió a sus superiores que autorizaran el traslado de toda la tribu chiricahua a Florida. No valoró los aportes de Chatto y los 60 scouts de Chiricahua. Y deliberadamente ignoró el hecho inconveniente de que 385 Chiricahuas no solo habían vivido pacíficamente en la reserva, sino que nunca habían proporcionado ayuda o reclutas a los hostiles. Argumentó que la reserva era un caldo de cultivo para nuevos líderes, lo que implica que los descontentos se habían unido a Geronimo. Sus engañosos argumentos convencieron al secretario de Guerra William Endicott y al presidente Grover Cleveland de aprobar su atroz traición. Aquellos que habían ayudado a Brig. El general George Crook y Miles para poner fin a la guerra sufrieron la misma suerte que aquellos que habían asaltado y asesinado a ciudadanos de Estados Unidos y México. Miles los envió a Florida, donde también fueron clasificados como prisioneros de guerra bajo el control del Departamento de Guerra. Increíblemente, esta designación continuó durante 27 años.

Aunque recordados hoy por su desprecio mutuo, Geronimo y Chatto tenían una historia similar. Cada uno pasó sus primeros años viviendo con Mangas Coloradas, que era el tío de Chatto. Cada uno recordaba vívidamente la traición de los militares hacia Cochise y Mangas Coloradas a principios de la década de 1860, lo que hizo que la tribu desconfiara de los estadounidenses y contribuyó poderosamente a la contienda en las décadas de 1870 y 1880. Cada uno fue capturado en Ojo Caliente por el agente indio John Clum, quien los encadenó antes de trasladarlos a San Carlos. Finalmente, en septiembre de 1881, temiendo que los soldados estadounidenses planearan arrestarlos, cada uno saltó la reserva para México. Chatto explicó que hablar de tropas ponía nervioso a [Gerónimo] [como] un animal salvaje.

Por razones no del todo claras, una vez en México terminó su amistad. Entonces la tragedia golpeó a Chatto. En la fría mañana del 24 de enero de 1883, los indios tarahumaras de Chihuahua sorprendieron a un campamento de Chiricahua, mataron a unos 20 y capturaron a 33, incluida la esposa de Chatto y sus dos hijos. La pérdida lo devastó, atormentándolo durante los siguientes 50 años. Su corazón estaba enfermo de dolor. Unos meses más tarde, Chatto dirigió una famosa incursión en los territorios de Arizona y Nuevo México que capturó a un joven blanco, Charlie McComas. Poco después, Chatto organizó una fiesta de guerra para atacar a Chihuahua. Su objetivo eran los cautivos, a quienes planeaba canjear por su familia. Sin embargo, mientras estuvo ausente, el capitán Emmet Crawford y los exploradores Apache occidental sorprendieron al campamento base de Chatto. Todos los jefes aceptaron la oferta de Crook & # 8217 de regresar a la Reserva de San Carlos. El general se llevó unos 300 con él, dejando 200 para entrar poco después. Chatto se quedó atrás, esperando recuperar a su familia. Las negociaciones con Chihuahua, sin embargo, fracasaron y finalmente regresó a San Carlos en febrero de 1884. Chatto explicó su demora al capitán Crawford: Si estuvieras en mi posición con tus parientes en cautiverio, creo que habrías hecho lo mismo.

Chatto se adaptó rápidamente a la vida de la reserva, pero la idea de su familia lo consumió. Cuando conoció al general Crook en mayo de 1884, Chatto le pidió ayuda para liberar a su gente detenida en México. Durante el año siguiente, el general hizo todo lo posible, instando a los funcionarios de Washington a que escribieran a los funcionarios mexicanos sobre los cautivos. Para mostrar su gratitud, Chatto se alistó como explorador el 1 de julio de 1884. El teniente Britton Davis, el agente de Chiricahuas & # 8217 cerca de Fort Apache, lo nombró sargento. Los dos desarrollaron una fuerte amistad basada en la confianza. Davis más tarde caracterizaría a Chatto como uno de los mejores hombres, rojo o blanco, que he conocido.

Crook se sintió especialmente traicionado por el levantamiento final de Geronimo. Le dijo a Davis que le dijera a la reserva Chiricahuas que tendría que suspender los esfuerzos para recuperar a sus cautivos hasta que se restablezcan tiempos de paz. Chatto tomó el mando de la reserva. Organizó una danza de guerra para los exploradores y luego se fue para perseguir a los hostiles. Chatto sorprendió a un campamento, capturando a 15 mujeres y niños. Años más tarde recordó la época ardua y peligrosa: llevaba una cinta de doble cartucho con 45 a 50 cartuchos en cada cinta. Mi rifle estaba cargado y mi dedo en el gatillo siguiendo nuevos rastros de enemigos, sin saber cuándo una bala podría atravesar mi frente. Chatto fue amigable con los dos guías de Chiricahua, Martine y Kayitah, quienes ayudaron al Ejército a ubicar al escurridizo líder & # 8217s campamento en México. De hecho, Chatto había recomendado a Martine, quien llevó al teniente Charles Gatewood a reunirse con Geronimo el 25 de agosto.

Geronimo y Chatto siguen siendo controvertidos entre su propia gente. Para algunos, Gerónimo fue el último de los patriotas chiricahua, luchando por preservar su forma de vida. Para otros, sin embargo, había sobrevivido a su tiempo. Los que permanecieron en la reserva pensaron que Chatto estaba en el lado derecho. Sin embargo, algunos seguidores de Geronimo, incapaces de apreciar las razones de la decisión de Chatto, lo consideraron un traidor.

Los historiadores apenas comienzan a comprender por qué Chatto sirvió con tanto entusiasmo como explorador de Crook. La animosidad personal hacia Geronimo fue quizás una de las razones, pero otra fue la gratitud hacia Crook por tratar de recuperar a su familia. Desafortunadamente, sin la cooperación de México, incluso el general no pudo arreglar un resultado feliz.

Gerónimo ha alcanzado una notoriedad concedida sólo a unos pocos indios americanos. Se podría argumentar que su fama proviene del hecho de que su rendición en 1886 marcó efectivamente el final de la resistencia india en América del Norte.

Este otrora oscuro guerrero apache, ni siquiera reconocido por la mayoría de los estadounidenses hasta que tenía 50 años, se ha convertido hoy en una leyenda de proporciones míticas, y su fama continúa creciendo constantemente.

Este artículo fue escrito por Edwin R. Sweeney y publicado originalmente en la edición de octubre de 2006 de Salvaje oeste Revista. Para obtener más artículos excelentes, suscríbase a Salvaje oeste revista hoy!


The Apache Wars: A Timeline Part 5 & # 8211 Geronimo se rinde

Anteriormente: En Apache Wars: A Timeline Part 4 Lozen deja su huella: Victorio Dies. Si se perdió el comienzo de la línea de tiempo de Apache Wars, haga clic aquí.

No se produce ni una redada de Apache en Arizona este año, la primera en al menos 10 años. Los apaches parecían bastante satisfechos con sus respectivas reservas y se están adaptando a una forma de vida agrícola. Esto cambiará. Y Gerónimo será el agente del cambio.

Como tal, será vilipendiado por aquellos Chiricahua Apaches que querían quedarse en las reservaciones y en paz con los Ojos Blancos. Geronimo será acusado de la decisión del gobierno de los Estados Unidos de enviar a todos los Chiricahuas, incluidos los exploradores leales, a Florida o Alabama. Aquí lo perderán todo: no solo su tierra natal, sino su cultura: idioma, religión e incluso a sus hijos. La tribu será exterminada casi por completo por la enfermedad y la negligencia.

Por el contrario, Geronimo alcanzará el estatus de superhéroe entre aquellos que querían permanecer libres y luchar hasta una muerte honorable por su gente, su patria y su forma de vida (que incluye emborracharse con tizwin y golpear a sus esposas).

1885-mayo

Geronimo está borracho e intimidado por editoriales de periódicos que exigen su muerte. Él y un pequeño grupo de guerreros escapan nuevamente a México, donde continúan atacando y matando, principalmente por comida, municiones y caballos.

El "Poder" de Geronimo que le advierte del peligro inminente, como era de esperar, coincide con su paranoia bien fundada, basada en las muchas veces que los apaches han sido engañados, engañados, muertos de hambre, humillados y asesinados por agentes indios y militares de Estados Unidos.

Sobre la reserva, vuelan los rumores. Lo que Geronimo oye es que el Capitán Davis ha sido autorizado para matarlo a él y a Mangus. Muchos años después, Chatto, quien se convirtió en el explorador de mayor confianza del General Crook, dice: "Hablar de tropas convirtió a Geronimo en un animal salvaje". Lee mas

1885-mayo: La mentira

Geronimo sigue siendo un prisionero de guerra en la fotografía de 1903.

Gerónimo trama un plan para persuadir a los reacios Chiricahuas liderados por los jefes Naiche y Chihuahua para que lo sigan en un éxodo masivo desde la reserva a México.

El plan de Geronimo incluye que sus primos, Fun y Tisna, maten al Capitán Davis y al explorador de Chiricahua Chatto, dos en quienes el ejército estadounidense y la reserva Chiricahuas confían más.

Geronimo knows that with Davis and Chatto dead, the reservation Chiricahuas, particularly the Apache scouts, will feel hopelessly vulnerable and will then follow him in a desperate attempt to escape to Northern Mexico and continue the good fight.

The charismatic Chief Chihuahua fears that Crook will deport him to Alcatraz. Chiefs Naiche and Chihuahua throw their support in favor of Geronimo's plan to escape from the reservation when Geronimo tells them that Davis and Chatto are already dead. It's a lie. It's a lie that will have devastating consequences for the Chiricahuas and divide the Apaches between those who want the relative comfort and security of the reservation and those who prefer an arduous life on the warpath defending their ancestral homeland against the despised White Eyes and Mexicans.

When Chief Chihuahua realizes he has put the lives of his people in serious danger because of Geronimo's lie, he vows to kill the shaman-turned-war-chief. Had he been successful, it is likely the war would have ended and the remaining hostiles would have returned peacefully to the San Carlos Reservation.

But the war continued and President Cleveland, with the support of his Secretary of War and Lt. General Phil Sheridan, decides the fate of all Chiricahuas, not just the hostiles.

Lozen fights alongside Geronimo and his few remaining warriors in a desperate attempt to survive and not be herded back to the San Carlos Reservation. Unbeknownst to them, this is the last campaign in the Apache Wars. Pursued relentlessly, she uses her mysterious power to sense the whereabouts and strength of the U.S. and Mexican cavalries.

Alexander Adams writes in his book, Gerónimo, "she would stand with her arms outstretched, chant a prayer to Ussen, the Apaches’ supreme deity, and slowly turn around." (until she senses the presence and number of the enemy and the direction of their impending attack.)

1886-January

Leading General Crooks second expedition into Mexico in pursuit of the renegade Apaches led by Geronimo, Captain Crawford and his scouts are attacked by Mexican militia led Mauricio Corredor. One of Corredor's scouts claimed to have shot and killed Chief Victorio six years earlier at Cerro Tres Castillos. (The Indian version has Victorio fall on his own knife rather than be captured and tortured by the despised Mexicans.)

Crawford attempts to get the Mexicans to cease fire by waving a white handkerchief so he can explain to Corredor that his troops and scouts are in pursuit of the Apaches. The Mexicans don't listen and one shoots Crawford in the head.

Dutchy, one of the Apache scouts, pulls the mortally wounded Crawford to safety, and then kills the Mexican who had shot him. He then kills the Mexican commander.

1886-Spring

Crook's army and Chiricahua Apache scouts, now led by Chatto, go after Geronimo and his warriors. They catch up with them again just over the Mexico border in March. At first, there are negotiations and hope that Geronimo will surrender.

March 1886. Gen. Crook (rt in round hat) tries to peruade Geronimo to surrender unconditionally.

Crook is only authorized to negotiate unconditional surrender, but Geronimo refuses. Crook makes concessions. He tells Geronimo that, if he and his people give up, they will be confined in the East with their families for NOT MORE THAN TWO YEARS then be returned to Arizona. Geronimo accepts these terms.

That night, Naiche, Geronimo and their little band get roaring drunk, reconsider their surrender, and disappear into the mountains. Crook’s vast army with all its Apache scouts cannot catch them.

After the conference with General Crook (March 1886) Naiche and Geronimo head back to the relative security of the Sierra Madre Mountains in Northern Mexico as fast as they can. With Naiche is his 3rd wife Ha-o-zinne.

Crook is ridiculed unmercifully in the newspapers. But far worse for his command, Crook received word from the President through Gen. Sheridan that the government will accept only unconditional surrender, and orders to renegotiate with Geronimo & Naiche.

Crook knows that this would be impossible. More important to Crook is his honor. He negotiated concessions with the hostiles in good faith and cannot now go back on his word. He asks Sheridan to relieve him of command.

Sheridan quickly complies.

In April, General Crook, who had tried to help the Apaches on their reservations, is replaced by the arrogant, pompous, shamelessly self-promoting General Miles. He deploys over two dozen heliograph points to coordinate the movements of 5,000 soldiers, 500 Apache scouts, 100 Navajo scouts, and thousands of civilian militia against Geronimo and his 24 exhausted warriors who, in order to survive, continue raiding in Northern Mexico.

(Note. The heliograph signaling system was Miles solution to poor communications and coordination in pursuit of the hostiles. Their use was one of the ways Miles employed to distinguish his campaign from his failed predecessor's. Despite Mile's claims to the contrary, the heliograph system was of little benefit to his pursuing army in locating the hostiles. The hostiles moved primarily at night. No sun, no heliograph signal. You can see a heliograph machine at the Fort Lowell Museum at 2900 N. Craycroft Road in Tucson.)

September 3, 1886

Lt. Charles Gatewood, now reporting to Miles, leads a party of 6, including himself, an interpreter, 2 packers and 2 Chiricahua scouts, in an exhausting pursuit of Naiche and Geronimo. Later that summer, scouts Kayihtah and Martine guide Lieutenant Gatewood to the Naiche and Geronimo camp.

Gatewood tells Naiche that his mother, wife and daughter have been shipped to Florida with Chief Chihuahua and his people. Gatewood tells Geronimo that his family is in Florida and if he ever wants to see them again, he will have to surrender now and go there too. This was a lie. The Chiricahuas had not yet been exiled, but they soon would be.

Broken, Naiche decides to surrender. Many other hostiles surrender too. Geronimo, war-weary and missing his family, knows he cannot continue his struggle for freedom without them. Naiche and Geronimo surrender to General Miles at Skeleton Canyon, Arizona Territory, not far from present-day Douglas.

It was a momentous event in the history of the Apaches and the United States. On Route 80 south of Rodeo, New Mexico, near Apache, Arizona, stands a marker commemorating Geronimo's surrender. A short distance south of the marker is a road that leads east and then south/southeast to the actual surrender site.
NEXT: The Apache Wars: A Timeline Part 6


Lieutenant Charles B. Gatewood: Premier Cavalry Soldier of the American West

History affords the unique perspective of offering clarity through retrospection. Even though Lieutenant Charles B. Gatewood, using mutual respect and negotiation—not bullets and bravado—potentially saved the lives of countless cavalrymen, settlers, Native Americans, and Mexicans by ensuring Geronimo’s surrender in 1886 after years of contentious and bloody Indian wars, he was continually overlooked for promotion and denied a much-deserved Medal of Honor, awarded for personal acts of exceptional courage and valor—literally defined as “strength of mind in regard to danger.” Few would argue that standing face to face on a hot August day in Mexico with a justifiably enraged Geronimo and the son of Cochise took that strength of mind. Nevertheless, when Gatewood achieved a peaceful resolution to years of hard fighting, he displayed an uncommon valor worthy of our nation’s highest honor. The single opponent to his nomination argued that since Gatewood had not come under enemy fire during this event, he was unworthy of the award. However, history should accurately reflect the true impact of this quiet man who changed the face of the Southwest, using words and not weapons.

Shortly after graduating from West Point, Gatewood was assigned to the Arizona Territory and became one the Army premier “Apache men,” having developed a detailed knowledge of the Apaches and their customs and commanding detachments of Apache scouts. This photograph shows Apache scouts under Gatewood’s command encamped near the Mexican border in 1883. (National Archives)

Born in Woodstock, Virginia, on 6 April 1853 as the oldest son of newspaper editor John Gatewood and his wife Emily, Charles Bare Gatewood had a normal if not exceptional early childhood. This, however, would all change after epochal events in the United States would lead him toward a career in the military. When the Civil War erupted in 1861, eight-year old Charles saw his father march off to fight for the South. When John Gatewood returned, he moved his family to Harrisonburg, Virginia, where he opened a print shop and edited the Commonwealth, un periódico local. Charles would finish his education there and later briefly teach school before receiving an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy (USMA) at West Point in 1873 from Representative John T. Harris, M.C., of Harrisonburg.

Graduating with the West Point Class of 1877 on 14 June 1877, Gatewood was ranked twenty-third out of a class of seventy-six. The five-foot-eleven-inch Virginian was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 6th U.S. Cavalry. Henry Ossian Flipper, the first black graduate of USMA, was also a member of this class, as well as Thomas Henry Barry, the twenty-seventh Superintendent of USMA (1910-1912). The great majority of this notable class would see duty on the frontier and participation in the Indian Wars, with twenty-six reaching the rank of colonel, five brigadier general, and five major general. Gatewood, however, appeared destined to be overlooked continually for promotion.

By the time Major General George Crook (USMA 1852) assumed command of the Department of Arizona in July 1882, Lieutenant Gatewood had become one of the Army’s premier “Apache men.” He had become familiar with the Arizona Territory and commanded Apache scout units almost constantly since his arrival in the Southwest in January 1878. He had also taken part in the U.S. Army’s campaign against Apache chief Victorio in 1879-80. Gatewood’s life depended upon the scouts under his command accepting and obeying his orders at all times. Crook recognized Gatewood’s detailed knowledge of the Apaches and their customs. Because of this, in 1882, he appointed Gatewood as the military commandant of the White Mountain Indian Reservation, headquartered at Fort Apache, Arizona Territory. Gatewood’s inherent honesty of character, fairness, and respect for Apaches allowed him to excel in this assignment.

Gatewood (right) is shown here with Lieutenant M.F. Goodwin, 10th Cavalry, shortly after the conclusion of the Army’s campaign against Apache chief Victorio in 1880. At the time, Gatewood was serving in the 6th Cavalry. (Archivos Nacionales)

Officers who drew Apache duty found it to be very demanding. Patrols often lasted for months. The harsh rigors of living in the field and the continued exposure to extreme weather and inhospitable terrain had consequences. As early as 1881, doctors reported that Gatewood “had rheumatism of knee, ankle, hip and shoulder, the result of exposure in line of duty in Arizona.” Gatewood’s declining health would plague him throughout his career.

On 17 May 1885, Geronimo and Apache Chief Naiche (son of Cochise and the last hereditary Apache chief of the Chokonen, or Chiricahua, tribes) fled the reservation with their band of followers and crossed the border into Mexico. Making periodic raids into the United States as well as in Mexico, they successfully eluded pursuit by both U.S. and Mexican troops. In March 1886, Crook met the warring Apaches at Cañón de los Embudos, Sonora, Mexico, to discuss their surrender. During the talks, Crook threatened and talked down to Geronimo. Although the Apaches surrendered and agreed to return to the United States, Geronimo, Naiche, and some followers feared for their lives and ran one last time on 28 March 1886. Crook resigned his command, and the Army replaced him with Brigadier General Nelson A. Miles. On 13 July 1886, after several attempts to apprehend Geronimo and his band met with failure, Miles asked Gatewood to “find Geronimo and Naiche in Mexico and demand their surrender.”

Displaying incredible skill and bravery, Gatewood and five others followed the Apaches and caught up with them on 25 August 1886 at a bend in the Bavispe River in the Teres Mountains in Mexico. Suddenly, however, the Apaches vanished. Several tense minutes passed before thirty-five or forty Chiricahua Apaches, including many heavily armed warriors, exploded out of the brush. Gatewood did not notice Geronimo among them but welcomed the Apaches cordially, removed his weapons, and passed out tobacco and paper. Everyone rolled cigarettes and smoked.

In March 1886, Crook met with Apache leaders Geronimo and Naiche at Cañón de los Embudos, Sonora, Mexico, to discuss the Apaches’ surrender. While Geronimo and Naiche agreed to terms and returned to Arizona , they once again fled to on 28 March to Mexico with a small group of Apaches. Crook resigned his command shortly thereafter the Army replaced him with Brigadier General Nelson A. Miles. (Arizona Historical Society, Tucson, PC 19 – #78166)

Geronimo then walked out of the brush and set his Winchester down, greeted Gatewood, and asked about his thinness (Gatewood was ill and extremely frail and gaunt). The two men sat together—too close, Gatewood would later note since he could feel Geronimo’s revolver. For a while they conversed in an English-Apache-Spanish pidgin dialect that allowed them to communicate with interpreters occasionally confirming their statements. When Gatewood delivered Miles’s surrender message, Geronimo wanted to know the terms. Gatewood replied, “Unconditional surrender!” The Apaches would be sent to Florida, where they would await President Grover Cleveland’s decision on their lives. Gatewood concluded by adding, “Accept these terms or fight it out to the bitter end.”

An angry Geronimo stared at Gatewood. After talking about a few other less profound issues, he spoke of all the bad that both countries, the United States and Mexico, had done to his people. Warrior tempers erupted, and the group of Apaches moved away from Gatewood so they could discuss the possible surrender. An hour later, they returned with Geronimo demanding terms similar to those offered in the past: “Take us to the reservation or fight.” Gatewood, however, could not do this. The atmosphere again turned tense, but before anything happened, Chief Naiche spoke up, saying Gatewood would not be harmed.

Geronimo holds a rifle in an iconic photograph of the Apache chief taken around 1887. (National Archives)

Breathing easier, Gatewood gambled and said that the remaining Chiricahuas in Arizona had been sent to Florida. Although untrue, he knew it would happen. An irate Geronimo and the Apaches spoke again between themselves. Nothing changed—they demanded a return to the reservation or they would fight. Danger loomed, but Gatewood kept his composure. Eventually Geronimo asked Gatewood what he would do. When Gatewood replied that he would accept Miles’s terms, Geronimo said he would announce their decision in the morning.

The next day, after Geronimo and Naiche agreed to return to the United States, Gatewood, realizing that his knowledge of the Apaches—especially the White Mountain Apaches—was unique, wrote a letter to his wife declaring that it was time for him to begin working on a memoir. Because of this, not only did he record Apache oral history before it became known as “oral history,” he documented arguably one of the most spectacular feats of the Indian Wars—meeting Naiche and Geronimo in Sonora, Mexico, talking them into surrendering, and getting them safely back to the States even though some within the Mexican and U.S. Armies wanted the famed Apache leaders dead.

As 1886 ended, Gatewood’s health once again began to fail. He had never recovered from the hardships suffered while in Mexico and the southwestern United States. As a result, the Army granted him an extended leave of absence. In May 1887, he returned to Miles’s headquarters (then in Los Angeles), where he served as aide-de-camp. In the fall of 1890, he re-joined the 6th U.S. Cavalry and was assigned to H Troop.

On 18 May 1892, a band of small ranchers and rustlers became enraged at the gunmen hired by the larger rancher owners in Johnson County, Wyoming. They set fire to the buildings at Fort McKinney, Wyoming, where the Army had confined a local cattle baron’s hired killers. The fire spread, threatening to destroy the entire post. Gatewood joined a small group of volunteers as they hurriedly placed cans of gunpowder in the burning buildings. The plan was to blow up the structures already engulfed in flames to save the remaining buildings. Suddenly, some burning rafters parted, fell, and prematurely detonated a can of powder. Gatewood was blown violently against the side of a building and badly injured.

This map shows the route Gatewood and his detachment followed as they pursued Geronimo and his band of Apaches. Gatewood’s party caught up with the Apaches in northern Mexico on 25 July 1886 and convinced the Indians to surrender. (Map courtesy of Louis Kraft)

Gatewood took a physical examination at Fort Custer, Montana, on 3 October 1892, with the following diagnosis: “Lieutenant Gatewood has suffered intermittently with articular rheumatism during the past twelve years. At present it exists in a sub acute form, and affects chiefly the right shoulder and hip. When combined with his injury from the explosion, which rendered his left arm almost completely disabled, the result was a foregone conclusion: Permanently disqualified physically to perform the duties of a captain of cavalry, and that his disability occurred in the line of duty.” Gatewood expected to be retired from the service but instead found himself remaining on the active duty roles as a member of the 6th Cavalry. Nevertheless, he was often on extended leaves of absence as the rapid deterioration of his health continued.

On 2 May 1895, Captain Augustus P. Blocksom recommended Lieutenant Gatewood for the Medal of Honor. It was endorsed by the commanding officer of the 6th Cavalry, Colonel D.B. Gordon, and the Commanding General of the Army, General Nelson A. Miles, but disapproved by Joseph B. Doe, Acting Secretary of War, on 24 June 1895 because Gatewood did not come under hostile fire during his pursuit of Geronimo and his band of Apaches. Gatewood had displayed extreme bravery. His services were extensive and, in fact, indispensable. Nevertheless, four Medals of Honor had been given to others during the efforts to capture Geronimo, but not to the one man instrumental in achieving the surrender.

The news greatly disappointed Gatewood. He spent the last year of his life nursing his ill health. The Army did, however, allow him to remain on the payroll instead of forcing him to retire. His health, however, continued to deteriorate, and he entered the hospital at Fort Monroe, Virginia, on 11 May 1896. On 20 May, he died from a malignant tumor in his liver. At the time of his death, he was forty-three years old and the senior lieutenant of his regiment, having never achieved the rank of captain after nineteen years service. Gatewood’s wife, Georgia, did not have enough money to bury her husband, so the Army arranged for burial in Arlington National Cemetery. Georgia survived the next twenty-four years on a pension of $17 a month she received from the government. She eventually moved to California to live with her son, “Charlie Junior,” born on 4 January 1883, at Fort Apache, Arizona Territory.

Charles B. Gatewood, Jr., was thirteen years old when his father died in 1896. He would later graduate from West Point with the Class of 1906 and retire as a colonel after thirty years service. Charles, Jr., launched a lifelong crusade to establish as record his father’s impact on the history of the Indian Wars. His fastidious and continuous effort to document his father’s participation in the last Apache war is now housed at the Arizona Historical Society in Tucson. Lieutenant Gatewood’s son laid the groundwork for authors such as Louis Kraft (quoted extensively in the second half of this article) to discover his father’s life and contributions.

Apache chiefs Naiche (left) and Geronimo stand for a photograph at Fort Bowie, Arizona Territory, in September 1886, shortly before they were transported to Florida. (Archivos Nacionales)

The words of Major General Augustus Perry Blocksom, Gatewood’s West Point classmate who served as a lieutenant with Gatewood in the 6th Cavalry and also commanded Indian scouts, aptly captured the character of Charles Gatewood. Blocksom wrote Gatewood’s obituary for the annual reunion of the USMA Association of Graduates in 1896 which states: “His life was simple and unassuming. He suffered many hardships, but his kind heart, genial humor, and gentle manners always gave evidence that nature had created him a true gentleman. His work was done in a comparatively limited field, and was unknown to and therefore unappreciated by the vast majority of our people but to us who knew him and his deeds so well, it seems hard that he should have received no just reward for his services. His name is still on the lips of the people of Arizona and New Mexico, and will not soon be forgotten by his comrades in the Indian campaigns.”

One might wonder how such an instrumental figure in America’s westward expansion such as Lieutenant Charles Gatewood could have escaped acclaim and, at minimum, placement in archives of those most interested in the all-important period of our country’s history following the Civil War. Thanks to Gatewood’s own proclivity for language and his desire to record the oral history of the Apaches—not to mention the dedication of his son, Charles, Jr., to preserving the legacy of his late father—future writers of note, such as acclaimed author and historian Louis Kraft, would become interested in the life of Lieutenant Gatewood, whose story attracts compassion and spurs that uniquely American desire to help the underdog—or those apparently treated unfairly—in the annals of history.

In a recent discussion with Kraft, much of the background surrounding the “Gatewood Enigma” became clear. To be sure, it is a story rife jealously and ambition—none of which appear to have emanated from Gatewood himself but from those close to him and envious of his accomplishments. Fortunately, Gatewood’s memories of the Apaches are as special as his achievements, as evident in a number of chapters he drafted for a book he planned to complete. Sadly, his premature death at age forty-three prevented him from finishing the project. Kraft generously offered to discuss how his personal interest in Gatewood turned into a quest to set the record straight.

Just before Kraft’s first book on the Apache Wars, Gatewood & Geronimo (University of New Mexico Press, 2000), moved toward publication, he realized how much of Gatewood’s experiences among the Apaches would not be told because of page limitations. Gatewood’s words would then remain in obscurity for another year until Kraft decided to contact the Arizona Historical Society to ask for permission to compile Gatewood’s notes into a readable manuscript. He then pieced together and edited the lieutenant’s writing, which became Lt. Charles Gatewood & His Apache Wars Memoir (University of Nebraska Press, 2005), resulting in a major reference for both researchers and historians. Kraft has also written extensively about cavalry operations in the American West, including a book on George Armstrong Custer. Few author/historians are as qualified as Kraft to assess the level of bravery inherent in Gatewood’s actions when confronting Geronimo.

A group of Apaches, including Naiche, Geronimo, and Geronimo’s son, sit before a railroad car that will take them to Florida and captivity, 10 September 1886. The Apaches would later end up at Fort Sill, Indian Territory (later Oklahoma) until 1913, when the U.S. government allowed them to settle on reservations in Oklahoma and New Mexico. (Archivos Nacionales)

Kraft further explained how his interest in Gatewood first occurred, an interest which has grown and been reinforced by others over the years. “My initial visit to the Gatewood Collection at the Arizona Historical Society in Tucson spurred my interest and encouraged what has become a passion. I didn’t know anything about Charles Gatewood and never thought I would write about him. However, when I stumbled upon him I was floored.” Kraft continued, “The history of the Indian Wars had relegated him to a minor character—read, he served his country, period. Perhaps Generals Miles and Crook (especially Miles) are responsible for this—it is shocking that Gatewood never rose above lieutenant when almost every other officer serving in Mexico in 1886 retired or died a colonel or general. There are superstars in the West (Custer, Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Geronimo, Earp, Holliday, Cody, Hickok, Crockett, Carson to name a few) and then there are major players (Crook, Miles, Roman Nose, Black Kettle, Naiche, Ned Wynkoop, Chivington again to name a few—this list is much longer). Telling Gatewood’s story was almost heresy. The plus is that now Gatewood is a player and will someday appear in documentaries. Hopefully others will learn more about him and put their findings to words for even though he was only a lieutenant, he played a major role in the last Apache war—and even more so if one considers his stand for human rights.” Kraft further added, “Gatewood was slender, tall, and at times struggled with his health. The Apaches called him ‘Bay-chen-daysen,’ which means big nose. Contemporaries considered him quiet, cool, courageous, intolerant of injustice, and honest, but the trait that best served him was his ability to accept and treat fairly the Apaches he commanded and oversaw on the White Mountain Indian Reservation.”

Kraft continued: “Perhaps the most unusual aspect of the valor of Lieutenant Gatewood on that day with Geronimo was that far from a brash bit of bravado his actions were rather an intelligent display of an incredible understanding of his foe. Yet, the essential question sustains: Why did he succeed when a force of 5,000 cavalrymen had failed?” For Kraft, it came down to the fact that “First, American and Mexican troops intended to hunt down and kill the Apaches, and the Indians knew this. Gatewood, who they knew, entered their camp with three interpreters, an Apache scout who was related to band members, and maybe one soldier. He did not come to kill, and the story he told of the removal of their people in Arizona to Florida, even if it had not happened yet, sounded true. This would give them nothing to return to if they re-crossed the border. Also, they knew that it was a matter of time before other soldiers caught and killed them.” Kraft contends that Gatewood offered Geronimo and the Apaches “the best deal they could possibly get—return to the United States, exile to a place called Florida where they would be reunited with the rest of their people, and the promise to return to their homeland sometime in the future. Gatewood offered them a chance to live, and they took it.”

As for Gatewood’s lack of fame, Kraft stated that “people wonder why history has forgotten this man. General Nelson Miles is the major culprit here, as he did everything possible to ensure that his command, the 4th U.S. Cavalry, got all the credit for the capture of Geronimo and the last of the warring Apaches—about thirty-eight people, including warriors, women, and children. Gatewood belonged to the 6th U.S. Cavalry, Crook’s regiment at the time. Crook had previously turned his back on Gatewood when the lieutenant refused to drop charges against a territorial judge for defrauding the White Mountain Apaches and had no intention of supporting Gatewood when Miles attempted to remove his name from the surrender of the Apaches.

“After the surrender of Geronimo, Gatewood would become an aide-de-camp to General Miles but always seemed to remain an outsider and few understand why,” said Kraft. “Again, Miles wanted all the glory to go to the 4th Cavalry. Ridiculous as it sounds, Gatewood was known as a ‘Crook man.’ In November 1887, a year after the Apaches surrendered, Tucson, Arizona Territory, hosted a festival to honor Miles and the 4th Cavalry at the San Xavier Hotel. The general made certain that the ‘Crook man’ did not attend by ordering him to remain at headquarters, which further distanced the lieutenant from the events that ended the war. At the celebration, when Miles was asked about Gatewood’s participation in the surrender, Miles stated that he ‘was sick of this adulation of Lieutenant Gatewood, who only did his duty.’”

In 1895, while serving as Commanding General of the Army, Major General Nelson A. Miles was one of the officers who endorsed Gatewood for the Medal of Honor for his pursuit of Geronimo in 1886, but it was disapproved by acting Secretary of the Army Joseph B. Doe because Gatewood’s actions did not come under hostile fire. (Instituto de Historia Militar del Ejército de EE. UU.)

Kraft added that “During the celebration, when Gatewood realized that some of Miles’ servants were on the Army’s payroll, he refused to sign the order for them to be paid as ‘bearers,’ as it was against military regulations. If we can believe Gatewood’s wife, Georgia, this angered Miles, who looked for ways to court-martial her husband. Gatewood was a first lieutenant and Miles’s officers were lieutenants or captains during the hunt for Geronimo that summer and fall of 1886. Nevertheless, all Miles’s officers retired or died with the rank of colonel or general, while Gatewood was still a first lieutenant at the time of his death, next in line via the seniority rule to become a captain. The military even refused to award Gatewood the Medal of Honor for his extraordinary feat, as it was not performed during the heat of battle.” Kraft further added, “In my humble opinion this was a sad statement about U.S. Army values.”

The 1993 movie, Geronimo: An American Legend, which featured Gatewood as a central character (played by Jason Patric), brought his name to an unaware American public, even though the film was filled with inaccuracies. Kraft said the movie was actually his introduction to the lieutenant as well and added, “Britton Davis (played by Matt Damon), a lifelong friend of Gatewood was just out of West Point when Geronimo (Wes Studi) crossed the border in 1884 to be escorted back to the reservation by Gatewood (who did not perform this duty—Davis did). It was not until I began researching the books that I realized that although the film pretends to be factual, it is fiction from the beginning to end.” Kraft stated that it mixes up events and dates, and often places characters in events in which they never participated. “Geronimo never made a great shot to scare off a posse. At the time of the film, Gatewood rode a mule, commanded Apache scouts and not troopers, and never killed an Apache warrior in one-on-one combat,” said Kraft. “Also, he never tracked the recalcitrant Apaches with Chatto (Steve Reevis) and Al Sieber (Robert Duvall). There was no shootout with scalp hunters in a cantina, Davis was not with Gatewood in 1886, and the lieutenant was not hit or harmed when he met the Apaches and talked them into returning to the United States. The errors are endless.”

Kraft continued to discuss additional inaccuracies, saying, “Actually Lieutenant Britton Davis resigned his commission in 1885, which did not become official until 1886, and later wrote The Truth About Geronimo (Yale University Press, 1929). Davis wrote this about Gatewood: ‘Cool, quiet, courageous firm when convinced of right but intolerant of wrong with a thorough knowledge of Apache character.” Davis was a good soldier and a fair administrator of the Apaches at Turkey Creek, a forested area east of Fort Apache. His compassion for the Apaches, along with the rough excursion he survived in Mexico in 1885, contributed to his disillusionment with the Army, the U.S.’s treatment of the Apaches, and his decision to resign his commission. The fact that Gatewood did not totally fade into oblivion is in large part due to Lieutenant Davis and his book.”

In discussing Geronimo, Kraft said, “While Geronimo would live a long life, dying while still incarcerated in 1909, he was never permitted to return to his native lands despite pleas to President Theodore Roosevelt. Geronimo recounted his life to S. M. Barrett, who assembled it as Geronimo: su propia historia (reprinted by E.P. Dutton in 1970).” Still many historians still ponder why Geronimo trusted Lieutenant Gatewood—or if he ever regretted that later in life. Kraft stated he believes that “by the summer of 1886 Gatewood’s fair handling of the White Mountain Indian reservation and his ability to deal with Apache scouts in the field were well known to the Apaches. They knew that Gatewood did not lie and would buck the military if he thought the Apaches had been wronged. There were not many white men who would do this. Daklugie, Chief Juh’s (pronounced ‘Who’) son translated Geronimo’s words for Barrett and said that Geronimo regretted trusting Miles, who had lied to him. But he never blamed Gatewood for the general’s perfidy.”

In the conclusion of his commentary, Kraft expressed hope for continued attention for Gatewood “…whose actions during his entire tenure with the Apaches were exemplary. He quickly viewed them as human beings who should be treated as such. Gatewood was a most special man, and more historical papers such as this will encourage sustained and justified interest in his life. One must remember that during the Indian Wars there weren’t many white men on the frontier who would put their careers at risk and stand up for a people whose entire way of life was coming to an end, as the citizens of the United States carved their new land.”


Contenido

The canyon was the site of several battles during the American Old West. In 1879, a group of outlaw Cowboys attacked a group of Mexican Rurales and stole their cattle. In July 1881, Curly Bill Brocius attacked and killed about a dozen Mexican smugglers carrying silver and heading to the United States. In retribution, the Mexican government attacked and killed Newman Haynes Clanton and others as they were driving cattle through Guadalupe Canyon. In 1883, Apache Indians from Chihuahua's band surprised eight troopers of Troop D, Fourth Cavalry, killed three men, burned the wagons and supplies, and drove off forty horses and mules. [1]

Geronimo's final surrender to General Nelson A Miles on September 4, 1886, occurred at the western edge of this canyon. As the surrender site is now on private property, commemorative monument has been erected to the northwest along SR 80, where it intersects with Skeleton Canyon Road in Arizona, at geographic coordinates 31°41′28″N 109°07′56″W  /  31.69111°N 109.13222°W  / 31.69111 -109.13222 . The mouth of the canyon lies about 9.5 mi (15.3 km) to the southeast just west of the Arizona – New Mexico line. [2]

On November 4, 1889 Judson "Comanche" White was found dead in Skeleton Canyon after being killed by persons or persons unknown all his possession had been stolen as well. [4]

On August 12, 1896 a shoot-out between the Christian gang and a posse resulted in the Skeleton Canyon shootout.

  1. ^ aB Hurst, George (January 9, 2003). "Geronimo's surrender — Skeleton Canyon, 1886". Archived from the original on 26 August 2015 . Retrieved 24 October 2014 .
  2. ^ aBChiricahua Peak, Arizona – New Mexico, 30x60 Minute Topographic Quadrangle, USGS 1994
  3. ^
  4. "Skeleton Canyon". Ghost Towns . Retrieved 2013-03-18 .
  5. ^The Deseret News November 7, 1889

This Cochise County, Arizona location article is a stub. Puedes ayudar a Wikipedia expandiéndolo.

This New Mexico state location article is a stub. Puedes ayudar a Wikipedia expandiéndolo.


Geronimo – A Brief History

The Geronimo Trail Scenic Byway is named for Geronimo, a famous Apache warrior. He was born Goyakla, meaning ‘one who yawns,’ in the 1820s near the headwaters of the Gila River. This would be in the Gila Wilderness area of Southwestern New Mexico today. He was born into the Bedonkohe Chiricahua tribe.

His early life was peaceful until the 1850s when the Bedonkohe group went to Mexico to trade with the Mexicans in a town the Apaches called Kas-ki-yeh. The women and children remained in camp while the men went into town. When they returned, they discovered that Mexicans from a nearby town had attacked the camp and massacred the women and children. Among those killed were Geronimo’s widowed mother, wife and three children. When the Apaches attacked the town in revenge, Geronimo fought so wildly that the Mexicans cried out to San Geronimo (Saint Jerome) for aid. The name became applied to Geronimo and stuck.

Geronimo spent most of the rest of his life seeking revenge. He became a war leader and led many raids on Mexican towns and villages, as well as settlements in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona.

By the 1870s, the European immigration of settlers was well underway. The Apache threat was so intense that the reservation system was created with the Army controlling the Apaches from raids. Most of the Chiricahua tribes were removed to the San Carlos reservation in southeast Arizona.

Geronimo left the reservation on raiding parties frequently. In 1883 he and his band sought refuge on the Warm Springs Reservation at Ojo Caliente, north of Winston, NM. The Indian agent, John Clum, found out he was there, and took a group of Indian scouts to arrest Geronimo. They set a trap and he was surrounded and captured. Because of this incident, the Government decided to close the Reservation at Ojo Caliente and move the Warm Springs Apaches to San Carlos with the other Chiricahua tribes.

Geronimo continued to escape from the reservation and lead raiding parties. He and his band of less than 150, mostly women and children, eluded General Crook and over 3,000 soldiers for some time. Apache scouts were finally used to track him and talk him into surrender so the Apaches could be reunited with their families. They were told they would be able to settle on a reservation in their homelands after a few years of exile. Crook’s superior officer reversed this decision, and Geronimo and several other Apaches fled again.

General Nelson A. Miles led a pursuit with 42 companies of U.S. Cavalry and 4,000 Mexican soldiers. Again the Apache scouts had to locate Geronimo and persuade him to surrender peacefully. The agreement was made September 4, 1886 in Skeleton Canyon, near present day Douglas, Arizona, with a promise of the Apaches being pardoned and reunited with their families. Miles also promised that Geronimo’s people would be granted a reservation in their homeland.

All the Chiricahua groups were sent by train to Florida where the warriors were detained for a year at Fort Pickens and their families at Fort Marion. The children of school age were shipped to the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania to be educated into the ‘White Man’s’ ways. The following year the warriors were reunited with their families at Mount Vernon, Alabama. Because the Apaches were from the dry desert climates of the southwest, the high humidity in Florida and Alabama lowered their resistance to diseases such as tuberculosis and many died. In 1894 they were moved to Ft. Sill, Oklahoma, which was a more agreeable climate for them.

Geronimo lived at Ft. Sill until his death in 1909, when he would have been in his mid-80s. During his later life he became a celebrity, making appearances at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, the 1901 Pan American Exposition, and the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. He rode with several Chiefs in Theodore Roosevelt’s inaugural parade in 1905, after which he was given a personal audience with the President. He pled to be returned home to his homeland. This wish was not to be granted. The following winter he fell off his horse, laid in a cold ditch through the night, and died a few days later of pneumonia.

Because of Geronimo and the Apache love of the Black Range and southwestern New Mexico, it is fitting that the scenic byway be named for a man whose spirit remained with this country he considered his homeland.


Para más información

Barrett, S. M. Geronimo's Story of His Life. New York: Duffield and Company, 1906.

Debo, Angie. Geronimo: The Man, His Time, His Place. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976.

Hermann, Spring. Geronimo: Apache Freedom Fighter. Springfield, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 1997.

Kent, Zachary. The Story of Geronimo. Chicago: Children's Press, 1989.

Mancall, Peter C.Deadly Medicine: Indians and Alcohol in Early America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Miles, Nelson. Personal Recollections. New York: Werner, 1897.

Shorto, Russell. Geronimo and the Struggle for Apache Freedom. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1989.

Wyatt, Edgar. Geronimo: The Last Apache War Chief. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952.


Ver el vídeo: La despedida de Victoria y Jerónimo (Junio 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Angelino

    Muchas gracias por su ayuda.

  2. Moyo

    Felicito, qué palabras ..., una idea magnífica

  3. Fausho

    Yo para ti estoy muy obligado.



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